Cell wall inhibitors antibiotics include b-lactam and non b-lactam antibiotics. B-lactam include penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenems and monobactams. Non b-lactam include vancomycin and daptomycin. All b-lactam antibiotic have rectangle b-lactam ring.
Dihydropteroate enzyme catalyze the synthesis of bacterial folic acid. Sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate enzyme thus interfere with folic acid synthesis. Dihydrofolate reductase catalyze the conversion of tetrahydrofolic acid in human and ba
Antibacterial groups can affect various cellular components. Cell wall inhibitors include b-lactams antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporin. Protein synthesis inhibitors include 50s and 30s inhibitors such aminoglycoside and macrolides. Inhibitor
Bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics through various mechanisms. Many bacteria develop enzymes that degrade specific antibiotics. Other bacteria have transmembrane pumps that efflux antibiotics outside the bacterial cells. Many gram negative bac
Penicillin must pass through porins of gram negative bacterial cell wall. The penicillin the bind to penicillin binding protein on the cell membrane to be activated. Active penicillin binds to and inactivate transpeptidase enzyme. As a result peptidoglyca
Bacterial ribosome is composed of two subunits; 30s and 50s subunits that unite together to form 70s complex. Tetracycline inhibits the binding of tRNA to 30s subunit. Aminoglycosides bind to and distort 30s subunit. Chloramphenicol inhibit the elongation