Cell Wall Inhibitors Diagram

Cell wall inhibitors antibiotics include b-lactam and non b-lactam antibiotics. B-lactam include penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenems and monobactams. Non b-lactam include vancomycin and daptomycin. All b-lactam antibiotic have rectangle b-lactam ring.

Folic Acid Inhibitors

Dihydropteroate enzyme catalyze the synthesis of bacterial folic acid. Sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate enzyme thus interfere with folic acid synthesis. Dihydrofolate reductase catalyze the conversion of tetrahydrofolic acid in human and ba

General Antibacterial Groups

Antibacterial groups can affect various cellular components. Cell wall inhibitors include b-lactams antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporin. Protein synthesis inhibitors include 50s and 30s inhibitors such aminoglycoside and macrolides. Inhibitor

General Bacterial Resistance

Bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics through various mechanisms. Many bacteria develop enzymes that degrade specific antibiotics. Other bacteria have transmembrane pumps that efflux antibiotics outside the bacterial cells. Many gram negative bac


The action of metronidazole start when pyruvate is converted into Acetyl CoA. Oxidized ferredoxin is coenzyme. Reduced ferredoxin catalyze the conversion of metronidazole into toxic radicals which in turn destroy DNA strands of bacterial and protozoal cel

Penicillin Mechanism Of Action

Penicillin must pass through porins of gram negative bacterial cell wall. The penicillin the bind to penicillin binding protein on the cell membrane to be activated. Active penicillin binds to and inactivate transpeptidase enzyme. As a result peptidoglyca

Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

Bacterial ribosome is composed of two subunits; 30s and 50s subunits that unite together to form 70s complex. Tetracycline inhibits the binding of tRNA to 30s subunit. Aminoglycosides bind to and distort 30s subunit. Chloramphenicol inhibit the elongation


Vancomycin affect mainly gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria have thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall. The peptidoglycan is crossed linked together by alanine and lysine amino acids. Vancomycin binds directly to alanine residues and in