Alzheimer Disease

This animation illustrates the developmental of two fundamental pathological findings in brains of Alzheimer patients. These findings include the neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaque. Abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein and mutation in gamasecre


The mechanism of action of four majoer groups of antidepressants are illustrated in this animation. Tricyclic antidepressant TCAs, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors SNRTIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs, and monoamine oxidas


Benzodiazepines are important sedative hypnotic group. Benzodiazepines bind to GABA receptors in different site from GABA binding site. As a result of this binding benzodiazepines enhance the activity of GABA receptors and allow more chloride Cl ions to i

Dopamine Balance

Dopaminergic innervation is under tight control in the nervous system. A decrease in dopaminergic innervation results in development of Parkinson disease, whereas elevation of dopaminergic activity may results in Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia

Local Anesthesia

Local anesthesia exerts its work through blocking of neuronal membrane sodium Na channels. Almost all local anesthesia are weak bases therefore they must deprotonated to its non charged form to pass through the cell membrane. In the cytoplasm they are pro


Opioids group is the strongest analgesic group. It works through binding to endogenous opioid receptors. Which leads to closure of presynaptic calcium Ca channels and halt the release of excitatory neurotransmitters. Additionally opioid receptors enhance

Parkinson Disease

The main target of antiparkinsonian drugs is to increase the dopamine concentration and activity in the brain. Levodopa is transformed into dopamine in the brain, DDC and COMT inhibitors decrease the peripheral metabolism of levodopa. Dopamine agonists a