Autonomic Nervous

Adrenergic Nerve Classification

Adrenergic nerves are classified into α and β receptors. In α receptors there is high affinity for epinephrine followed by norepinephrine then isoproterenol. In β receptors there is high affinity for isoproterenol then epinephrine to norepinephrine.

Adrenergic Synthesis And Metabolism

Norepinephrine NE neurotransmitters formation start with the uptake of tyrosine into the cytoplasm. Dopamine is transformed into dopa then to dopamine which converted in the storage vesicles into norepinephrine. NE is metabolized in synaptic cleft by COMT

Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic nervous system ANS is part of peripheral nervous system. ANS is composed of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The main neurotransmitter at parasympathetic receptors is acetylcholine, whereas norepinephrine is the main neurotransmit

Cholinergic Agonists And Antagonists

Cholinergic agonists involve the direct agonists at the muscarinic or nicotinic receptors. The indirect acting agonists inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Cholinergic antagonists are divided into muscarinic blockers or nicotinic blockers which is divide

Cholinergic Neurons

Acetylcholine Ach is the main neurotransmitters at the synaptic cleft of cholinergic neurons. After exertion its effect Ach is metabolized at the synaptic cleft by acetylcholinesterase esterase inhibitors into acetic and acetate which is reuptake by the n

Neuromuscular Junction Blockers

Acetylcholine binds to its nicotinic receptor to induce contraction of skeletal muscle. Group of drugs called neuromuscular junction blockers competitively block the nicotinic receptors and induce relaxation. Increase the concentration of acetylcholine at

Organophosphate Poisoning

Acetylcholinesterase enzyme degrade acetylcholine molecules into acetic acid and choline. Organophosphate group bind to and inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. This binding is reversible unless the aging is happened. Pralidoxime can reverse the actio