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Large amount of cholesterol is excreted as bile acids into duodenum. However most of this bile acid is reabsorbed back to the liver through enterohepatic circulation. Bile acid sequestering drugs such as colestipol form complex with bile acids and inhibit

Metformin is oral antidiabetic drug. It reduce the intestinal absorption of glucose. Metformin might decrease the insulin receptor resistance. Additionally metformin inhibit glycogenolysis.

Mebendazole and albendazole are anthelminthic drugs. Their mechanisms of actions include interfering with microtubule synthesis and inhibiting glucose uptake by helminthic cells

Volume of distribution measure the ability of various drugs with different sizes and charges to distribute through body fluids. Apparent volume of distribution Vd is calculated by dividing the amount of the drug administered on the plasma concentration of

The inactive coagulation factors X, IX, VII and II is carboxylated to their active forms. Reduced vitamin K works as cofactor for this reaction. The oxidized vitamin K is returned back into its reduced form with help of NADPH. Warfarin inhibit the reduct

Competitive antagonists bind to receptors without producing biological effects. Increasing the concentration of agonists will reverse the effect of competitive antagonists. In contrast the effect of noncompetitive antagonists cannot be reversed by agonist